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In Orange County

JS Electric
We are licensed 652382,
bonded, and insured

We accept Visa/Mastercard

(714) 469-2110

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JS Electric is one of the most responsive and proficient electrician companies I have seen. My experience with them has is that they have demonstrated the knowledge and experience to handle any electrical issue for large, as well as smaller projects. Plus, they are very responsive and provide excellent customer service. I recommend them highly.



JS Electric - ElectriciansOrangeCounty.com - has been specializing in ELECTRICAL WIRING of homes, commercial buildings, and industrial sites for OVER 25 YEARS.

We're your premier electrical contractor because we have exceptional service at fair market prices and we answer the phone or call you back within minutes. If you are building new location, looking to purchase a whole new electrical system, need a few outlets rewired, electrical pannels installed, high voltage equipment installed or your circuit breaker needs to be replaced, we are here to help you.


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5 core PVC insulated copper cable
Electronic symbols for wiring

Building wiring is the electrical wiring and associated devices such as switches, meters and light fittings used in buildings or other structures. Electrical wiring uses insulated conductors.

Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used, and their maximum current. Wiring safety codes vary by country, and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is attempting to standardise wiring amongst member countries. Colour codes are used to distinguish line, neutral and earth (ground) wires.

Wiring safety codes

Main article: Electrical codes

Wiring safety codes are intended to protect people and property from electrical shock and fire hazards. Regulations may be established by city, county, provincial/state or national legislation, usually by adopting a model code (with or without local amendments) produced by a technical standards-setting organisation, or by a national standard electrical code.

Electrical codes arose in the 1880s with the commercial introduction of electrical power. Many conflicting standards existed for the selection of wire sizes and other design rules for electrical installations.

The first electrical codes in the United States originated in New York in 1881 to regulate installations of electric lighting. Since 1897 the US National Fire Protection Association, a private non-profit association formed by insurance companies, has published the National Electrical Code (NEC). States, counties or cities often include the NEC in their local building codes by reference along with local differences. The NEC is modified every three years. It is a consensus code considering suggestions from interested parties. The proposals are studied by committees of engineers, tradesmen, manufacturer representatives, fire fighters and other invitees.

Since 1927, the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) has produced the Canadian Safety Standard for Electrical Installations, which is the basis for provincial electrical codes. The CSA also produces the Canadian Electrical Code, the 2006 edition of which references IEC 60364 (Electrical Installations for Buildings) and states that the code addresses the fundamental principles of electrical protection in Section 131. The Canadian code reprints Chapter 13 of IEC 60364, but there are no numerical criteria listed in that chapter to assess the adequacy of any electrical installation.

Although the US and Canadian national standards deal with the same physical phenomena and broadly similar objectives, they differ occasionally in technical detail. As part of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) program, US and Canadian standards are slowly converging toward each other, in a process known as harmonisation.

In Germany, DKE (the German Commission for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies of DIN and VDE) is the organisation responsible for the promulgation of electrical standards and safety specifications. DIN VDE 0100 is the German wiring regulations document harmonised with IEC 60364.

In the United Kingdom, wiring installations are regulated by the Institution of Engineering and Technology Requirements for Electrical Installations: IEE Wiring Regulations, BS 7671: 2008, which are harmonised with IEC 60364. The 17th edition (issued in January 2008) includes new sections for microgeneration and solar photovoltaic systems. The first edition was published in 1882.

In Australia and New Zealand, the AS/NZS 3000 standard, commonly known as the "wiring rules", specifies requirements for the selection and installation of electrical equipment, and the design and testing of such installations. The standard is mandatory in both New Zealand and Australia; therefore, all electrical work covered by the standard must comply.

In European countries, an attempt has been made to harmonise national wiring standards in an IEC standard, IEC 60364 Electrical Installations for Buildings. Hence national standards follow an identical system of sections and chapters. However, this standard is not written in such language that it can readily be adopted as a national wiring code. Neither is it designed for field use by electrical tradesmen and inspectors for testing compliance with national wiring standards. By contrast, national codes, such as the NEC or CSA C22.1, generally exemplify the common objectives of IEC 60364, but provide specific rules in a form that allows for guidance of those installing and inspecting electrical systems.

The international standard wire sizes are given in the IEC 60228 standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission. In North America, the American Wire Gauge standard for wire sizes is used.

Colour code

Colour-coded wires in a flexible plastic electrical conduit found commonly in modern European houses

To enable wires to be easily and safely identified, all common wiring safety codes mandate a colour scheme for the insulation on power conductors. In a typical electrical code, some colour-coding is mandatory, while some may be optional. Many local rules and exceptions exist per country, state or region. Older installations vary in colour codes, and colours may fade with insulation exposure to heat, light and ageing.

As of March 2011, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) requires the use of green/yellow colour cables as protective conductors, blue as neutral conductors and brown as single-phase conductors. The United States National Electrical Code requires a green or green/yellow protective conductor, a white or grey neutral, and a black single phase.

The United Kingdom requires the use of wire covered with green insulation, to be marked with a prominent yellow stripe, for safe earthing (grounding) connections. This growing international standard was adopted for its distinctive appearance, to reduce the likelihood of dangerous confusion of safety earthing (grounding) wires with other electrical functions, especially by persons affected by red-green colour blindness.

In the UK, phases could be identified as being live by using coloured indicator lights: red, yellow and blue. The new cable colours of brown, black and grey do not lend themselves to coloured indicators. For this reason, three-phase control panels will often use indicator lights of the old colours.

Standard wire insulation colours
Flexible cable (e.g., extension, power, and lamp cords)
Region or country Phases Neutral Protective earth/ground
Argentina, Australia, European Union, South Africa (IEC 60446) Color wire brown.svg Color wire blue.svg Color wire green yellow.svg
Australia, New Zealand (AS/NZS 3000:2007 3.8.3) Color wire brown.svg, Color wire red.svg Color wire light blue.svg, Color wire black.svg Color wire green yellow.svg
Brazil Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire red.svg Color wire blue.svg Color wire green.svg
United States, Canada Color wire black.svg
  metallic brass
Color wire white.svg
  metallic silver
Color wire green.svg, Color wire green yellow.svg;
  ,   green/yellow striped
Fixed cable (e.g., in-, on-, or behind-the-wall cables)
Region or country Phases Neutral Protective earth/ground
Argentina; European Union (IEC 60446) including, from 31 March 2004, the UK (BS 7671) Color wire brown.svg, Color wire black.svg, Color wire grey.svg Color wire blue.svg Color wire green yellow.svg
UK, prior to 31 March 2004 (BS 7671) Color wire red.svg, Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire blue.svg Color wire black.svg
  • Color wire green yellow.svg
  • Color wire green.svg (formerly)
  • Color wire bare copper.svg no insulation (formerly)
Australia, New Zealand (AS/NZS 3000:2007 3.8.1, table 3.4)
  • Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire light blue.svg, Color wire black.svg, Color wire green yellow.svg, Color wire green.svg prohibited; any other color permitted
  • Color wire red.svg, Color wire brown.svg recommended for single phase
  • Color wire red.svg, Color wire white.svg, Color wire blue.svg recommended for multiphase
Color wire light blue.svg, Color wire black.svg Color wire green yellow.svg (since about 1980)
Color wire green.svg (since about 1980)
Color wire bare copper.svg no insulation; sleeved at ends (formerly)
Brazil Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire red.svg, Color wire black.svg, Color wire white.svg Color wire blue.svg Color wire green.svg
South Africa
  • Color wire red.svg, Color wire white.svg; or
  • Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire blue.svg
Color wire black.svg Color wire green yellow.svg
India, Pakistan Color wire red.svg, Color wire yellow.svg, Color wire blue.svg Color wire black.svg Color wire green.svg, Color wire green yellow.svg
United States Color wire black.svg, Color wire red.svg, Color wire blue.svg for 120, 208, or 240 V
Color wire brown.svg, Color wire orange.svg, Color wire yellow.svg for 277, or 480 V
  metallic brass
Color wire white.svg for 120, 208, or 240 V
Color wire grey.svg for 277, or 480 V
  metallic silver
Color wire green.svg   
Color wire bare copper.svg no insulation
Color wire green yellow.svg required for isolated systems
Canada Color wire red.svg, Color wire black.svg for 120, 208, or 240 V
Color wire red.svg, Color wire black.svg, Color wire blue.svg for 600, or 347 V
Color wire white.svg Color wire green.svg   
Color wire bare copper.svg no insulation
Color wire orange.svg, Color wire brown.svg for isolated single-phase systems
Color wire orange.svg, Color wire brown.svg, Color wire yellow.svg for isolated three-phase systems
Color wire green.svg for isolated systems
Boxes (e.g.,   translucent purple) denote markings on wiring terminals.
  1. ^ The colours in this table represent the most common and preferred standard colours for wiring; however others may be in use, especially in older installations.
  2. ^ a b c Cables may have an uninsulated PE which is sleeved with the appropriate identifying colours at both ends, especially in the UK.
  3. ^ a b Australian and New Zealand wiring standards allow both European and Australian colour codes. Australian-standard phase colours conflict with IEC 60446 colours, where IEC-60446 supported neutral colour (blue) is an allowed phase colour in the Australia/New Zealand standard. Care must be taken when determining system used in existing wiring.
  4. ^ The protective earth conductor is now separately insulated throughout all cables.
  5. ^ a b Canadian and American wiring practices are very similar, with ongoing harmonisation efforts.

Wiring methods

Installing electrical wiring by "chasing" grooves into the masonry structure of the walls of a building

Materials for wiring interior electrical systems in buildings vary depending on:

  • Intended use and amount of power demand on the circuit
  • Type of occupancy and size of the building
  • National and local regulations
  • Environment in which the wiring must operate.

Wiring systems in a single family home or duplex, for example, are simple, with relatively low power requirements, infrequent changes to the building structure and layout, usually with dry, moderate temperature and non-corrosive environmental conditions. In a light commercial environment, more frequent wiring changes can be expected, large apparatus may be installed and special conditions of heat or moisture may apply. Heavy industries have more demanding wiring requirements, such as very large currents and higher voltages, frequent changes of equipment layout, corrosive, or wet or explosive atmospheres. In facilities that handle flammable gases or liquids, special rules may govern the installation and wiring of electrical equipment in hazardous areas.

Wires and cables are rated by the circuit voltage, temperature rating and environmental conditions (moisture, sunlight, oil, chemicals) in which they can be used. A wire or cable has a voltage (to neutral) rating and a maximum conductor surface temperature rating. The amount of current a cable or wire can safely carry depends on the installation conditions.

Early wiring methods

The first interior power wiring systems used conductors that were bare or covered with cloth, which were secured by staples to the framing of the building or on running boards. Where conductors went through walls, they were protected with cloth tape. Splices were done similarly to telegraph connections, and soldered for security. Underground conductors were insulated with wrappings of cloth tape soaked in pitch, and laid in wooden troughs which were then buried. Such wiring systems were unsatisfactory because of the danger of electrocution and fire, plus the high labour cost for such installations.

Knob and tube

Main article: Knob and tube wiring
Knob-and-tube wiring (the orange cable is an unrelated extension cord)

The earliest standardised method of wiring in buildings, in common use in North America from about 1880 to the 1930s, was knob and tube (K&T) wiring: single conductors were run through cavities between the structural members in walls and ceilings, with ceramic tubes forming protective channels through joists and ceramic knobs attached to the structural members to provide air between the wire and the lumber and to support the wires. Since air was free to circulate over the wires, smaller conductors could be used than required in cables. By arranging wires on opposite sides of building structural members, some protection was afforded against short-circuits that can be caused by driving a nail into both conductors simultaneously.

By the 1940s, the labour cost of installing two conductors rather than one cable resulted in a decline in new knob-and-tube installations. However, the US code still allows new K&T wiring installations in special situations (some rural and industrial applications).

Metal-sheathed wires

Lead cased electrical wire from a circa 1912 house in Southern England. Two conductors are sheathed in red and black rubber, the central earth wire is bare. These wires are dangerous because the sheath is prone to split if repeatedly flexed.

In the United Kingdom, an early form of insulated cable, introduced in 1896, consisted of two impregnated-paper-insulated conductors in an overall lead sheath. Joints were soldered, and special fittings were used for lamp holders and switches. These cables were similar to underground telegraph and telephone cables of the time. Paper-insulated cables proved unsuitable for interior wiring installations because very careful workmanship was required on the lead sheaths to ensure moisture did not affect the insulation.

A system later invented in the UK in 1908 employed vulcanised-rubber insulated wire enclosed in a strip metal sheath. The metal sheath was bonded to each metal wiring device to ensure earthing continuity.

A system developed in Germany called "Kuhlo wire" used one, two, or three rubber-insulated wires in a brass or lead-coated iron sheet tube, with a crimped seam. The enclosure could also be used as a return conductor. Kuhlo wire could be run exposed on surfaces and painted, or embedded in plaster. Special outlet and junction boxes were made for lamps and switches, made either of porcelain or sheet steel. The crimped seam was not considered as watertight as the Stannos wire used in England, which had a soldered sheath.

A somewhat similar system called "concentric wiring" was introduced in the United States around 1905. In this system, an insulated electrical wire was wrapped with copper tape which was then soldered, forming the grounded (return) conductor of the wiring system. The bare metal sheath, at earth potential, was considered safe to touch. While companies such as General Electric manufactured fittings for the system and a few buildings were wired with it, it was never adopted into the US National Electrical Code. Drawbacks of the system were that special fittings were required, and that any defect in the connection of the sheath would result in the sheath becoming energised.

Other historical wiring methods

Other methods of securing wiring that are now obsolete include:

  • Re-use of existing gas pipes when converting gas light installations to electric lighting. Insulated conductors were pulled through the pipes that had formerly supplied the gas lamps. Although used occasionally, this method risked insulation damage from sharp edges inside the pipe at each joint.
  • Wood mouldings with grooves cut for single conductor wires, covered by a wooden cap strip. These were prohibited in North American electrical codes by 1928. Wooden moulding was also used to some degree in England, but was never permitted by German and Austrian rules.
  • A system of flexible twin cords supported by glass or porcelain buttons was used near the turn of the 20th century in Europe, but was soon replaced by other methods.
  • During the first years of the 20th century, various patented forms of wiring system such as Bergman and Peschel tubing were used to protect wiring; these used very thin fiber tubes, or metal tubes which were also used as return conductors.
  • In Austria, wires were concealed by embedding a rubber tube in a groove in the wall, plastering over it, then removing the tube and pulling wires through the cavity.

Metal moulding systems, with a flattened oval section consisting of a base strip and a snap-on cap channel, were more costly than open wiring or wooden moulding, but could be easily run on wall surfaces. Similar surface mounted raceway wiring systems are still available today.


Main article: Power cable
Wiring for extremely wet conditions

Armoured cables with two rubber-insulated conductors in a flexible metal sheath were used as early as 1906, and were considered at the time a better method than open knob-and-tube wiring, although much more expensive.

The first rubber-insulated cables for building wiring were introduced in 1922 with US patent 1458803, Burley, Harry & Rooney, Henry, "Insulated electric wire", issued 1923-06-12, assigned to Boston Insulated Wire And Cable .[citation needed] These were two or more solid copper electrical wires with rubber insulation, plus woven cotton cloth over each conductor for protection of the insulation, with an overall woven jacket, usually impregnated with tar as a protection from moisture. Waxed paper was used as a filler and separator.

Over time, rubber-insulated cables become brittle because of exposure to atmospheric oxygen, so they must be handled with care and are usually replaced during renovations. When switches, socket outlets or light fixtures are replaced, the mere act of tightening connections may cause hardened insulation to flake off the conductors. Rubber insulation further inside the cable often is in better condition than the insulation exposed at connections, due to reduced exposure to oxygen.

The sulphur in vulcanised rubber insulation attacked bare copper wire so the conductors were tinned to prevent this. The conductors reverted to being bare when rubber ceased to be used.

Diagram of a simple electrical cable with three insulated conductors

About 1950, PVC insulation and jackets were introduced, especially for residential wiring. About the same time, single conductors with a thinner PVC insulation and a thin nylon jacket (e.g. US Type THN, THHN, etc.) became common.[citation needed]

The simplest form of cable has two insulated conductors twisted together to form a unit. Such un-jacketed cables with two (or more) conductors are used only for extra low voltage signal and control applications such as doorbell wiring.

US single-phase residential power distribution transformer, showing the two insulated "Line" conductors and the bare "Neutral" conductor (derived from the earthed center-tap of the transformer). The distribution supporting centenaries are also shown.

In North American practice, an overhead cable from a transformer on a power pole to a residential electrical service usually consists of three twisted (triplexed) conductors, with one being a bare protective neutral/earth/ground conductor (which may be made of copper), with the other two being the insulated conductors for the both of the two 180 degree out of phase 120 V line voltages normally supplied. However, the earthed/grounded conductor is often a catenary cable (made of steel wire), which is used to support the insulated Line conductors. For additional safety, the ground conductor may be formed into a stranded co-axial layer completely surrounding the phase/line conductors, so that the outermost conductor is grounded.

Copper conductors

Main article: Copper wire and cable

Electrical devices often contain copper conductors because of their multiple beneficial properties, including their high electrical conductivity, tensile strength, ductility, creep resistance, corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, solderability, resistance to electrical overloads, compatibility with electrical insulators and ease of installation.

Despite competition from other materials, copper remains the preferred electrical conductor in nearly all categories of electrical wiring. For example, copper is used to conduct electricity in high, medium and low voltage power networks, including power generation, power transmission, power distribution, telecommunications, electronics circuitry, data processing, instrumentation, appliances, entertainment systems, motors, transformers, heavy industrial machinery and countless other types of electrical equipment.

Aluminium conductors

Terminal blocks for joining aluminium and copper conductors. The terminal blocks may be mounted on a DIN rail.

Aluminium wire was common in North American residential wiring from the late 1960s to mid-1970s due to the rising cost of copper. Because of its greater resistivity, aluminium wiring requires larger conductors than copper. For instance, instead of 14 AWG (American wire gauge) for most lighting circuits, aluminium wiring would be 12 AWG on a typical 15 ampere circuit, though local building codes may vary.

Aluminium conductors were originally indiscriminately used with wiring devices intended for copper conductors. This practice was found to cause defective connections unless the aluminium was one of a special alloy, or all devices — breakers, switches, receptacles, splice connectors, wire nuts, etc. — were specially designed for the purpose. These special designs address problems with junctions between dissimilar metals, oxidation on metal surfaces and mechanical effects that occur as different metals expand at different rates with increases in temperature.

Unlike copper, aluminium has a tendency to cold-flow under pressure, so screw clamped connections may become loose over time. This can be mitigated by using spring-loaded connectors that apply constant pressure, applying high pressure cold joints in splices and termination fittings, or using a bolted mechanical type clamp wire connector and tightening it to a specified torque.

Also unlike copper, aluminium forms an insulating oxide layer on the surface. This is sometimes addressed by coating aluminium conductors with an antioxidant paste (containing zinc dust in a low-residue polybutene base) at joints, or by applying a mechanical termination designed to break through the oxide layer during installation.

Because of improper design and installation, some junctions to wiring devices would overheat under heavy current load, and cause fires. Revised standards for wiring devices (such as the CO/ALR "copper-aluminium-revised" designation) were developed to reduce these problems. Nonetheless, aluminium wiring for residential use has acquired a poor reputation and has fallen out of favour.

Aluminium conductors are still used for bulk power distribution and large feeder circuits, because they cost less than copper wiring, and weigh less, especially in the large sizes needed for heavy current loads. Aluminium conductors must be installed with compatible connectors.

Modern wiring materials

Modern non-metallic sheathed cables, such as (US and Canadian) Types NMB and NMC, consist of two to four wires covered with thermoplastic insulation, plus a bare wire for grounding (bonding), surrounded by a flexible plastic jacket. Some versions wrap the individual conductors in paper before the plastic jacket is applied.

Special versions of non-metallic sheathed cables, such as US Type UF, are designed for direct underground burial (often with separate mechanical protection) or exterior use where exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a possibility. These cables differ in having a moisture-resistant construction, lacking paper or other absorbent fillers, and being formulated for UV resistance.

Rubber-like synthetic polymer insulation is used in industrial cables and power cables installed underground because of its superior moisture resistance.

Insulated cables are rated by their allowable operating voltage and their maximum operating temperature at the conductor surface. A cable may carry multiple usage ratings for applications, for example, one rating for dry installations and another when exposed to moisture or oil.

Generally, single conductor building wire in small sizes is solid wire, since the wiring is not required to be very flexible. Building wire conductors larger than 10 AWG (or about 6 mm²) are stranded for flexibility during installation, but are not sufficiently pliable to use as appliance cord.

Cables for industrial, commercial and apartment buildings may contain many insulated conductors in an overall jacket, with helical tape steel or aluminium armour, or steel wire armour, and perhaps as well an overall PVC or lead jacket for protection from moisture and physical damage. Cables intended for very flexible service or in marine applications may be protected by woven bronze wires. Power or communications cables (e.g., computer networking) that are routed in or through air-handling spaces (plenums) of office buildings are required under the model building code to be either encased in metal conduit, or rated for low flame and smoke production.

Mineral insulated cables at a panel board

For some industrial uses in steel mills and similar hot environments, no organic material gives satisfactory service. Cables insulated with compressed mica flakes are sometimes used. Another form of high-temperature cable is a mineral insulated cable, with individual conductors placed within a copper tube and the space filled with magnesium oxide powder. The whole assembly is drawn down to smaller sizes, thereby compressing the powder. Such cables have a certified fire resistance rating and are more costly than non-fire rated cable. They have little flexibility and behave more like rigid conduit rather than flexible cables.

Because multiple conductors bundled in a cable cannot dissipate heat as easily as single insulated conductors, those circuits are always rated at a lower "ampacity". Tables in electrical safety codes give the maximum allowable current for a particular size of conductor, for the voltage and temperature rating at the surface of the conductor for a given physical environment, including the insulation type and thickness. The allowable current will be different for wet or dry, for hot (attic) or cool (underground) locations. In a run of cable through several areas, the most severe area will determine the appropriate rating of the overall run.

Cables usually are secured by special fittings where they enter electrical apparatus; this may be a simple screw clamp for jacketed cables in a dry location, or a polymer-gasketed cable connector that mechanically engages the armour of an armoured cable and provides a water-resistant connection. Special cable fittings may be applied to prevent explosive gases from flowing in the interior of jacketed cables, where the cable passes through areas where inflammable gases are present. To prevent loosening of the connections of individual conductors of a cable, cables must be supported near their entrance to devices and at regular intervals through their length. In tall buildings, special designs are required to support the conductors of vertical runs of cable. Usually, only one cable per fitting is allowed unless the fitting is otherwise rated.

Special cable constructions and termination techniques are required for cables installed in ocean-going vessels; in addition to electrical safety and fire safety, such cables may also be required to be pressure-resistant where they penetrate bulkheads of a ship. Resistance to corrosion caused by salt water or salt spray is also required.


Electrical conduit risers, seen inside fire-resistance rated shaft, as seen entering bottom of a firestop. The firestop is made of firestop mortar on top, rockwool on the bottom. Raceways are used to protect cables from damage.

Insulated wires may be run in one of several forms of a raceway between electrical devices. This may be a specialised bendable pipe, called a conduit, or one of several varieties of metal (rigid steel or aluminium) or non-metallic (PVC or HDPE) tubing. Rectangular cross-section metal or PVC wire troughs (North America) or trunking (UK) may be used if many circuits are required. Wires run underground may be run in plastic tubing encased in concrete, but metal elbows may be used in severe pulls. Wiring in exposed areas, for example factory floors, may be run in cable trays or rectangular raceways having lids.

Where wiring, or raceways that hold the wiring, must traverse fire-resistance rated walls and floors, the openings are required by local building codes to be firestopped. In cases where safety-critical wiring must be kept operational during an accidental fire, fireproofing must be applied to maintain circuit integrity in a manner to comply with a product's certification listing. The nature and thickness of any passive fire protection materials used in conjunction with wiring and raceways has a quantifiable impact upon the ampacity derating, because the thermal insulation properties needed for fire resistance also inhibit air cooling of power conductors.

A cable tray can be used in stores and dwellings

Cable trays are used in industrial areas where many insulated cables are run together. Individual cables can exit the tray at any point, simplifying the wiring installation and reducing the labour cost for installing new cables. Power cables may have fittings in the tray to maintain clearance between the conductors, but small control wiring is often installed without any intentional spacing between cables.

Note that cable trays are very common in two-way radio sites where they are used for antenna cables, some of which can be 3 1/8 inches (8 cm) or even larger. Local codes may preclude mixing power cables with antenna cables in the same tray.

Since wires run in conduits or underground cannot dissipate heat as easily as in open air, and since adjacent circuits contribute induced currents, wiring regulations give rules to establish the current capacity (ampacity).

Special sealed fittings are used for wiring routed through potentially explosive atmospheres.

Bus bars, bus duct, cable bus

Main articles: Bus bar and Bus duct
Topside of firestop with penetrants consisting of electrical conduit on the left and a bus duct on the right. The firestop consists of firestop mortar on top and rockwool on the bottom, for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

For very high currents in electrical apparatus, and for high currents distributed through a building, bus bars can be used. (The term "bus" is a contraction of the Latin omnibus – meaning "for all".) Each live conductor of such a system is a rigid piece of copper or aluminium, usually in flat bars (but sometimes as tubing or other shapes). Open bus bars are never used in publicly accessible areas, although they are used in manufacturing plants and power company switch yards to gain the benefit of air cooling. A variation is to use heavy cables, especially where it is desirable to transpose or "roll" phases.

In industrial applications, conductor bars are often pre-assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures. This assembly, known as bus duct or busway, can be used for connections to large switchgear or for bringing the main power feed into a building. A form of bus duct known as "plug-in bus" is used to distribute power down the length of a building; it is constructed to allow tap-off switches or motor controllers to be installed at designated places along the bus. The big advantage of this scheme is the ability to remove or add a branch circuit without removing voltage from the whole duct.

Busbars for distributing PE (ground)

Bus ducts may have all phase conductors in the same enclosure (non-isolated bus), or may have each conductor separated by a grounded barrier from the adjacent phases (segregated bus). For conducting large currents between devices, a cable bus is used.[further explanation needed]

For very large currents in generating stations or substations, where it is difficult to provide circuit protection, an isolated-phase bus is used. Each phase of the circuit is run in a separate grounded metal enclosure. The only fault possible is a phase-to-ground fault, since the enclosures are separated. This type of bus can be rated up to 50,000 amperes and up to hundreds of kilovolts (during normal service, not just for faults), but is not used for building wiring in the conventional sense.

Electrical panels

Electrical panels, cables and firestops in an electrical service room at a paper mill in Ontario, Canada

Electrical panels are easily accessible junction boxes used to reroute and switch electrical services. The term is often used to refer to circuit breaker panels or fuseboxes. Local codes can specify physical clearance around the panels.

Degradation by pests

Rasberry crazy ants have been known to consume the insides of electrical wiring installations, preferring DC over AC currents. This behaviour is not well understood by scientists.

Squirrels, rats and other rodents may gnaw on unprotected wiring, causing fire and shock hazards. This is especially true of PVC-insulated telephone and computer network cables. Several techniques have been developed to deter these pests, including insulation loaded with pepper dust.

See also


  1. ^ "National Electrical Code". National Electrical Manufacturers Association. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "New Cable Colour Code for Electrical Installations". Energy Market Authority. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  3. ^ "Color Coding Chart". Conwire. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  4. ^ Noel Williams, Jeffrey S. Sargen. "NEC Q and A: Questions and Answers on the National Electrical Code". p. 117. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "Wiring Color Codes Infographic". All About Circuits. Retrieved 4 January 2016. 
  6. ^ Robert M. Black, The History of Electric Wires and Cable, Peter Pergrinus Ltd. London, 1983 ISBN 0-86341-001-4, pp. 155–158
  7. ^ Croft
  8. ^ Schneider, Norman H., Wiring houses for the electric light; together with special references to low voltage battery systems, Spon and Chamberlain, New York 1916, pp. 93–98
  9. ^ Croft, p. 142
  10. ^ Croft, p. 143
  11. ^ Croft, p. 136
  12. ^ Croft, p. 137
  13. ^ "Generating Power to Your House - How Power Grids Work - HowStuffWorks". HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 21 February 2016. 
  14. ^ Pops, Horace (June 2008). "Processing of wire from antiquity to the future". Wire Journal International: 58–66. 
  15. ^ The Metallurgy of Copper Wire. litz-wire.com
  16. ^ Joseph, Gόnter, 1999, Copper: Its Trade, Manufacture, Use, and Environmental Status, Kundig, Konrad J.A. (ed.), ASM International, ISBN 0871706563, pp. 141–192, 331–375
  17. ^ "Ideal Noalox Antioxidant Material Safety Data Sheet" (PDF). 
  18. ^ Andrew R Hickey (15 May 2008). "'Crazy' Ant Invasion Frying Computer Equipment". 
  19. ^ "Guide to Safe Removal". Squirrels in the Attic. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  20. ^ University of Illinois Extension. "Tree Squirrels > Damage Prevention and Control Measures". Living with Wildlife in Illinois. University of Illinois Board of Trustees. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 


Further reading

  • National Electrical Code — Basis of most US electrical codes. Choose NFPA 70 (general purpose) or NFPA 70A (one and two family dwellings). Free registration required.
  • National Electrical Code 2011 (2011 ed.), Quincy MA: National Fire Protection Association, 2010. — periodically re-issued every 3 years
  • NEMA comparison of IEC 60364 with the US NEC
  • Cauldwell, Rex (2002). Wiring a House (For Pros By Pros). Newtown, CT, USA: Taunton Press. ISBN 1-56158-527-0. 
  • Hirst, E. Electric Utilities and Energy
  • Litchfield, Michael; Michael McAlister (2008). Taunton's wiring complete : expert advice from start to finish (Revised ed.). Newtown, CT: Taunton Press. ISBN 978-1-60085-256-5. 

External links


Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website: http://www.oc.ca.gov


City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast



"An honest answer is the sign of true friendship."

We receive many customers from across the world including people from the following cities:

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698, Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899, Atwood, 92811, Brea, 92821, 92822,92823, Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624, Corona del Mar, 92625, Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628, Cypress, 90630, Dana Point, 92629, East Irvine, 92650, El Toro, 92609, Foothill Ranch, 92610, Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728, Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838, Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846, Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649, Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697, La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633, La Palma, 90623, Ladera Ranch, 92694, Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652, Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677, Laguna Woods, 92637, Lake Forest, 92630, Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721, Midway City, 92655, Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871, Rancho Santa Margarita 92688, San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674, San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799, Seal Beach , 90740, Silverado 92676, Stanton, 90680, Sunset Beach 90742, Surfside 90743, Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782, Villa Park, 92861,Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685, Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

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Best Electrician in Orange County CA

Orange County CA, Visit: OrangeCountyCABusinessDirectory.com

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(c) 2016 Electricians Orange County CA, JS Electric,, 24112 Valyermo Drive , Mission Viejo, CA 92691
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